Community Dental Health

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Cover Date:
March 2019
Print ISSN:
0265 539X
Electronic ISSN:

Socioeconomic Variation in the association between Malocclusion and Oral Health Related Quality of Life


Objectives: Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) has been linked to malocclusion. We aimed (a) to investigate the association
between malocclusion and OHRQoL among children, and (b) to examine whether this association varied by socioeconomic status. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of data for 4,217 children aged 12 & 15 years, who participated in the 2013 Children Dental Health Survey
(CDHS); a nationally representative survey of children in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Malocclusion was determined using the
modified Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). OHRQoL was measured using the Child Oral Impacts on  Daily  Performance
(Child-OIDP). For socioeconomic status, we used the pupils’ eligibility for free school meals (FSM) and Index of Multiple Deprivation
(IMD). Adjusted marginal effects were estimated controlling for confounding variables. Separate analyses were carried out for the two age
groups. Results: Malocclusion was associated with 6% and 15% increases in the probability of reporting negative impact of OHRQoL
for 12- and 15-year olds respectively, which was significant for 15-year olds (marginal effect=0.15, 95% CI=0.08-0.22). Malocclusion was
associated with the prevalence of oral impacts for 12 year olds (marginal effect=0.1, 95% CI=0.02-0.17) and 15-year olds (marginal effect=0.2, 95% CI 95%=0.13-0.28) not eligible for FSM and for 15-year olds in the most (marginal effect=0.2, 95% CI=0.1-0.29) and least
(marginal effect=0.26, 95% CI=0.13-0.4) deprived IMD quintiles. Conclusions: Malocclusion was associated with impacts on OHRQoL
for 15-year olds. There was evidence of a relationship between SES, malocclusion and OHRQoL.

Keywords: Impact, malocclusion, oral health related quality of life, orthodontics, socioeconomic status, children

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Vahid Ravaghi, Sarah R Baker, Philip E Benson, Zoe Marshman, Alexander J Morris

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